14 June 1996 Negative-tone resist system using vinyl cyclic acetal crosslinker
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Abstract
Most high performance negative tone resists are chemically amplified systems. The chemistry involves a creation of acid during photo-exposure and subsequent crosslinking of the polymer matrix during post-exposure bake. The commonly used crosslinkers are epoxies, melamines, benzyl alcohol and benzyl acetates. In light of the high reactivity of vinyl group on vinyl ether type compounds, literature has suggested that photochemical addition reaction of a polymer- bearing pendant vinyl ether with various thiol compounds can potentially be highly sensitive negative-type photoresists. Recently, bis-dihydropyrane derivative has been used for the first time to develop high performance negative tone resists for DUV, E-beam and x-ray applications. A cyclic acetal system based on acetal blocked aromatic aldehyde has also been demonstrated to be a good crosslinker for negative DUV resist. In order to take advantage of the above chemistries, we have investigated a crosslinker, 3,9-divinylspirobi(M-dioxane) (DVSDO), which contains both cyclic acetal groups and vinyl groups. Different loadings of DVSDO from 8% to 17% were formulated in combination with triphenyl sulfonyl triflate and N-sulfonyl triflate derivatives in polyhydroxystyrene matrix. One composition contains 8% N- sulfonyloxy derivative, 12% DVSDO in 20% solid of polyhydroxystyrene has shown resolution to 0.35 micrometer from Canon 0.37 NA DUV stepper. It also shows promising resolution in E-beam lithography. Varying the post apply bake (PAB) temperatures and post exposure bake temperatures (PEB) demonstrate a great dependency of sensitivity to baking temperature. The sensitivity increases with decreasing PAB, while decreases with decreasing PEB. Insufficient baking time (less than 4 - 5 minutes) at lower PEB temperature 90 degrees Celsius causes significant film loss after development in 0.14N TMAH for 60 - 75s. On the other hand, when the PEB temperature is too high (greater than 120 degrees Celsius), the resist's resolution is degraded. Recent literature report has shown that high resolution can be achieved on negative resist system by raising PAB temperature. However, most of the known resist systems cannot tolerate high temperature, due to background crosslinking. The crosslinker, DVSDO, introduced in this paper seems to have higher heat resistance toward thermal induced background crosslinking. The resist formulated here can tolerate 140 degrees Celsius bake without seeing residues on the unexposed area. In this paper, we also discuss some IR studies on the crosslinking mechanism in addition to the lithographic evaluation.
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Wu-Song Huang, Wu-Song Huang, Kim Y. Lee, Kim Y. Lee, K. Rex Chen, K. Rex Chen, Dominic Schepis, Dominic Schepis, } "Negative-tone resist system using vinyl cyclic acetal crosslinker", Proc. SPIE 2724, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XIII, (14 June 1996); doi: 10.1117/12.241829; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.241829
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