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14 June 1996 Standing waves reducing additives
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Small molecules added to novolak/diazonaphthoquinone based resists plasticize their dry film coatings. This has a significant effect on standing waves reduction. Such additives allow the photo active compounds (PACs) to diffuse at reduced temperatures. Raw dissolution rate data is highly reliable for detecting standing waves. The effect of the additives on standing waves reduction is a direct function of their molar concentration in the film. Additives that are more alkaline soluble than the novolak matrix are generally preferred to avoid reducing the resist photo speed. These additives may cause serious loss in resist inhibition unless the interaction efficiency of the novolak/PAC system is sufficiently high. Non-reflective substrates are necessary to isolate and examine the effect of additives on resist dissolution without thermal or standing wave interferences. Optimal resist formulations using such additives provide high contrast systems with reduced standing waves applied over reflective substrates.
© (1996) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Medhat A. Toukhy and G. McCormick "Standing waves reducing additives", Proc. SPIE 2724, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XIII, (14 June 1996);

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