21 May 1996 Assessment of resist-specific isofocal behavior in optical lithography at half-micron resolution
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This paper investigates, by computer simulation using Prolith/2 and SOLID, the performance of a number of i-line photoresists at half-micron resolution in terms of focus/exposure (F-E) plots and relates their isofocal behavior to exposure and development characteristics as described by the Dill and Mack simulation parameters. Isofocal behavior is found to be independent of the exposure parameters but greatly affected by the development process and is shown to be a function of the Mack parameter, n, which is related to the resist contrast, (gamma) . In addition, this behavior is also shown to be resolution dependant. The results presented in this paper therefore assist in the choice of resist directly from resist characteristics as defined by the modeling parameters, for any particular application, while retaining the desired isofocal exposure conditions.
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Graham G. Arthur, Brian Martin, "Assessment of resist-specific isofocal behavior in optical lithography at half-micron resolution", Proc. SPIE 2725, Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography X, (21 May 1996); doi: 10.1117/12.240136; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.240136

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