The plasma produced when a powerful laser pulse is focused onto a target surface in vacuum can provide a copious source of highly charged ions. Ions can then be extracted from the plasma to form a high current, short pulse length ion beam. Experimental laser ion sources have been the subject of investigation in medical physics and particle accelerator applications; a laser ion source is an option for the injection system of heavy ions for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN where a high intensity lead ion beam is required. This paper describes work carried out at CERN to develop a carbon dioxide laser ion source.
John Tambini, John Tambini,
"Laser ion source studies at CERN", Proc. SPIE 2767, Fourth International Workshop on Iodine Lasers and Applications, (13 February 1996); doi: 10.1117/12.232197; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.232197