19 August 1996 Point-spread autocorrelation function (PSAF): a new technique for lens apodization characterization and imaging
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Abstract
We present a new technique that provides a functional response similar--but not identical--to the point spread function which can be used for (i) characterizing the apodization conditions of a high numerical aperture (NA) lends, or (ii) imaging with an improved resolution over confocal. This measurement technique employs a spatial autocorrelation of the focal field, absorption and subsequent fluorescence in a sample containing a suitable fluorophore. The experimental results presented show the sensitivity of the new technique to different apodization conditions of the lens. Theoretically the experiments are modeled from the first Rayleigh-Sommerfeld integral of scalar diffraction theory in the Kirchhoff approximation. Without any fitting parameters, the calculated curves show excellent agreement with the experimental results. Based on the same principle, the technique can be used to obtain improved resolution over that obtainable in confocal microscopy. The imaging method is presented and the imaging resolution is analyzed for two model objects. The method employs only one high NA lens for the potentially robust common path delivery of the autocorrelated excitation beams.
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Michiel Mueller, G. J. Brakenhoff, "Point-spread autocorrelation function (PSAF): a new technique for lens apodization characterization and imaging", Proc. SPIE 2775, Specification, Production, and Testing of Optical Components and Systems, (19 August 1996); doi: 10.1117/12.246773; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.246773
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