31 October 1996 Germanium gamma-ray spectrometer PGS for the MARS-96 mission
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Abstract
The precision gamma-ray spectrometer (PGS) on the Russian MARS-96 spacecraft is designed to measure 0.1-8 MeV gamma rays in order to determine the elemental composition of the Martian surface, to study solar flares, and to determine energy spectra and times of arrival of gamma-ray bursts. The PGS instrument contains two high-purity, n-type germanium crystals, each similar to the one used on the Mars observer mission. Each crystal is contained in a titanium can with helicoflex cryogenic metal seals. An annealing capability allows repair of radiation damage. The detectors are cooled via nitrogen heat pipes attached to a passive radiator mounted on the back side of a solar panel. The radiators are designed to keep the Ge detectors below 100 K during the interplanetary flight. The electronics include first-stage electronics mounted on each crystal can and 4096-channel pulse height analyzers. Two parallel channels of electronics are provided and can be cross-switched by telecommands. In November 1995 integration of the flight detectors with flight electronics and testing of the complete system cooled by the passive radiator were successfully completed. The energy resolution degrades to about 3 keV in the flight configuration. Warming the radiators indicated that for the worst case when the radiator views Mars at the equator the maximum temperature of the detectors will be limited by the diode action of the heat pipes to 118 K. Extensive calibrations with radioactive sources are in progress. We conclude that we have an improved design for planetary and gamma-ray burst studies and the PGS instrument is ready for launch in November 1996.
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Igor G. Mitrofanov, Igor G. Mitrofanov, D. S. Anfimov, D. S. Anfimov, A. M. Chernenko, A. M. Chernenko, V. Sh. Dolidze, V. Sh. Dolidze, V. I. Kostenko, V. I. Kostenko, O. E. Isupov, O. E. Isupov, A. S. Pozanenko, A. S. Pozanenko, A. K. Ton'shev, A. K. Ton'shev, D. A. Ushakov, D. A. Ushakov, Yu. I. Bobrovnitsky, Yu. I. Bobrovnitsky, T. M. Tomilina, T. M. Tomilina, George F. Auchampaugh, George F. Auchampaugh, Maureen M. Cafferty, Maureen M. Cafferty, D. M. Drake, D. M. Drake, Edward E. Fenimore, Edward E. Fenimore, R. W. Klebesadel, R. W. Klebesadel, J. L. Longmire, J. L. Longmire, Calvin E. Moss, Calvin E. Moss, Robert C. Reedy, Robert C. Reedy, J. E. Valencia, J. E. Valencia, } "Germanium gamma-ray spectrometer PGS for the MARS-96 mission", Proc. SPIE 2808, EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Instrumentation for Astronomy VII, (31 October 1996); doi: 10.1117/12.256032; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.256032
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