12 July 1996 Low-gravity factor in fabrication of thin film nonlinear optical waveguides based on photocrosslinkable polyimide
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We present the results of study of thin film optical waveguides based on photocrosslinkable polyimide with glass transition temperature approaching 400 degrees C. The birefringence of the waveguides can possibly be reduced by eliminating the effect of gravity on the conditions of the film fabrication. We propose fabrication technique that allows us to change the orientation of the substrate and to analyze the gravity effect on the polyimide waveguide. This technique uses UV assisted film deposition from polyimide solution on a transparent substrate mounted as a removable wall of the container with the solution. The technique is also suitable for film fabrication at low gravity conditions. In order to investigate possible effects that can occur during UV assisted liquid deposition at low gravity, we studied UV exposed polyimide films made by spin coating at normal conditions. We describe the appearance of a gradient index waveguide on the top of polyimide coat exposed to UV light. The proposed mechanism of the waveguide formation includes photocrosslinking followed by UV assisted modification of the material which leads to the increase of the optical absorbance in UV region accompanied by the refractive index increase in visible region. Theoretical model based on this approach allowed us to reconstruct the refractive index profile n the waveguide. The profile is in good agreement with that obtained from the waveguide mode spectrum measured with prism coupling technique.
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Sergey S. Sarkisov, Sergey S. Sarkisov, Zedric Antone Teague, Zedric Antone Teague, Putcha Venkateswarlu, Putcha Venkateswarlu, Hossin Ahmed Abdeldayem, Hossin Ahmed Abdeldayem, Donald O. Frazier, Donald O. Frazier, Grigory Adamovsky, Grigory Adamovsky, "Low-gravity factor in fabrication of thin film nonlinear optical waveguides based on photocrosslinkable polyimide", Proc. SPIE 2809, Space Processing of Materials, (12 July 1996); doi: 10.1117/12.244318; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.244318

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