19 July 1996 Two-dimensional pixel array image sensor for protein crystallography
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A 2D pixel array image sensor module has been designed for time resolved Protein Crystallography. This smart pixels detector significantly enhances time resolved Laue Protein crystallography by two or three orders of magnitude compared to existing sensors like films or phosphor screens coupled to CCDs. The resolution in time and dynamic range of this type of detector will allow to study the evolution of structural changes that occur within the protein as a function of time. This detector will also considerably accelerate data collection in static Laue or monochromatic crystallography and make better use of the intense beam delivered by synchrotron light sources. The event driven pixel array detectors, based on the column architecture, can provide multiparameter information (energy discrimination, time), with sparse and frameless readout without significant dead time. The prototype module consists of a 16 by 16 pixel diode array bump-bonded to the integrated circuit. Different detector materials (Silicon, CdZnTe) are evaluated. The detection area is 150 by 150 micrometers2 connected to the readout electronics. The individual pixel processor consists of a low-noise amplifier shaper followed by a differential threshold comparator which provides the counting of individual photons with an energy above a programmable threshold. To accommodate the very high rates, above 5 by 108/cm2/s, each pixel processor has a 3 bit pre-scaler which divides the event rate by 8. Overflow from the divider which defines a pseudo fourth bit will generate a readout sequence providing the pixel address. Addresses, generated locally as analog signals, are converted off-chip and used to increment a location in an histogramming memory to generate the computerized image of the Laue diagram.
© (1996) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Eric J. Beuville, Eric J. Beuville, J.-F. Beche, J.-F. Beche, Chris P. Cork, Chris P. Cork, V. Douence, V. Douence, Thomas Earnest, Thomas Earnest, Jacques E. Millaud, Jacques E. Millaud, David Robert Nygren, David Robert Nygren, Howard A. Padmore, Howard A. Padmore, Bojan T. Turko, Bojan T. Turko, G. Zizka, G. Zizka, Philip S. Datte, Philip S. Datte, N.-H. Xuong, N.-H. Xuong, } "Two-dimensional pixel array image sensor for protein crystallography", Proc. SPIE 2859, Hard X-Ray/Gamma-Ray and Neutron Optics, Sensors, and Applications, (19 July 1996); doi: 10.1117/12.245126; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.245126

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