13 September 1996 Digital standard cells and operational amplifiers for operation up to 250 degrees C using low-cost CMOS technology
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Abstract
There is an increasing demand from automotive, aircraft and space industry for reliable high temperature resistant electronics. Circuits with reliable functionality up to temperatures of 250 degree(s)C would be sufficient for most of these applications. Digital standard cells and operational amplifiers are the basic building blocks of these circuits. Commercially available digital standard cell libraries and operational amplifiers are normally specified for operation up to a maximum temperature of 125 degree(s)C. Hence, the purpose of this work was the design and characterization of digital standard cells and operational amplifiers for operation up to 250 degree(s)C using a low-cost 1.0 micrometers epi-CMOS process. Several design measures were applied to the cells in order to further improve latch-up resistivity and to limit leakage currents, respectively. The transfer curves of all digital cells for all input signal combinations have been recorded in the temperature range from 30 to 250 degree(s)C. Significant results are very low temperature shifts of the noise margins and of the switching point, respectively. Furthermore, the low (0 V) and high (5 V) levels are reached exactly over the entire temperature range. Outstanding characteristics of the operational amplifier comprise low open-loop gain temperature drift as well as low offset and offset temperature drift, respectively. The open-loop gain was greater than 83 dB at room temperature with a drift of less than 0.02 dB/ degree(s)C. The offset voltage amounted to -1 mV at room temperature and 1 mV at 250 degree(s)C, respectively. The long-term behavior of these cells is currently under investigation.
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Jens Stemmer, Jens Stemmer, Joerg Ackermann, Joerg Ackermann, Dirk Uffmann, Dirk Uffmann, Jochen Aderhold, Jochen Aderhold, "Digital standard cells and operational amplifiers for operation up to 250 degrees C using low-cost CMOS technology", Proc. SPIE 2875, Microelectronic Device and Multilevel Interconnection Technology II, (13 September 1996); doi: 10.1117/12.250892; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.250892
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