Presented is an assembling method for the fabrication of a piezoelectric miniature motor. The fabrication is done by placement and soldering of actuator elements to a substrate. The assembly of the miniature motor demands high precision (plus or minus 1 micrometer), four-axes positioning which is fulfilled by a special micropositioning stage. A particular assembling sequence is used and critical process and performance parameters are evaluated. One of the important factors is the joint strength between actuator element and substrate. A joint strength as high as 100 MPa has been measured which would allow for torque values in the range of 15 mNm for a 4 mm diameter motor.
Stefan A. I. Johansson,
"Microassembly of a piezoelectric miniature motor", Proc. SPIE 2906, Microrobotics: Components and Applications, (11 December 1996); doi: 10.1117/12.260619; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.260619