18 December 1996 Expanded image database of pistachio x-ray images and classification by conventional methods
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In order to develop sorting methods for insect damaged pistachio nuts, a large data set of pistachio x-ray images (6,759 nuts) was created. Both film and linescan sensor images were acquired, nuts dissected and internal conditions coded using the U.S. Grade standards and definitions for pistachios. A subset of 1199 good and 686 insect damaged nuts was used to calculate and test discriminant functions. Statistical parameters of image histograms were evaluated for inclusion by forward stepwise discrimination. Using three variables in the discriminant function, 89% of test set nuts were correctly identified. Comparable data for 6 human subjects ranged from 67 to 92%. If the loss of good nuts is held to 1% by requiring a high probability to discard a nut as insect damaged, approximately half of the insect damage present in clean pistachio nuts may be detected and removed by x-ray inspection.
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Pamela M. Keagy, Pamela M. Keagy, Thomas F. Schatzki, Thomas F. Schatzki, Lan Chau Le, Lan Chau Le, David P. Casasent, David P. Casasent, David Weber, David Weber, } "Expanded image database of pistachio x-ray images and classification by conventional methods", Proc. SPIE 2907, Optics in Agriculture, Forestry, and Biological Processing II, (18 December 1996); doi: 10.1117/12.262859; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.262859


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