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30 January 1997 Novel all-optical planar and compact minimum-stage switches of size >= 4x4
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Throughout the paper, novel all-optical planar 1-stage k multiplied by k-switches and compact minimum-stage k multiplied by k-switches in double-layer and multi-layer technique, are presented and analyzed. In the first case, the number of k(k - 1)/2 switches of size 2 multiplied by 2 (equivalent minimum of the Spanke-Benes network) are arranged in parallel instead of the number of k (equivalent maximum) cascaded 2 multiplied by 2-switches of the Spanke- Benes network. In the second case, the number of 2 multiplied by 2-switches depends on the geometry of the 'pipes' of the switches formed by the layers and waveguides [for a square it is 3k/2(k/2 - 1) for rearrangeable nonblocking and 3(k - 1)k/2(k/2 - 1) for circuit switching networks]. The number of stages (NS) (horizontal cascaded) of the proposed compact switches for the nonblocking interconnection is NS equals n - 1 if the waveguides form an n-gon (n greater than or equal to 3) for any size of the k multiplied by k-switch. In this way, the attenuation of optical signals passing through a photonic network may be minimized. In particular, for any size of a k multiplied by k-switch, dependent on the n-gon, the minimum NS is n-1 equals 2 (triangle) or n - 1 equals 3 (square) etc. Thus the proposed switch concept is of complexity O(1), i.e. the NS is independent of the number of inputs/outputs. Additionally, the proposed switches are capable to operate in the circuit switching mode if and only if (iff) the parallelism increases by the factor k-1.
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Josef Giglmayr "Novel all-optical planar and compact minimum-stage switches of size >= 4x4", Proc. SPIE 2918, Emerging Components and Technologies for All-Optical Photonic Systems II, (30 January 1997);

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