A second generation image sensor technology has been developed at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory with performance comparable to charge-coupled device (CCDs). This sensor is implemented using the industry-standard complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology employed for nearly all microprocessors and memory chips and thus takes advantage of the rapid worldwide development of this technology. The CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) maintains the performance of CCDs regarding noise and quantum efficiency and offers unique advantages for ultra low power focal plane operation and integration of supporting electronics such as timing, control, clock, signal chains and analog-to-digital converters. This paper describes the technology for implementing a low power camera-on-a-chip.
SWIR (short-wave infrared) imaging technology, phenomena, and applications are described. Commercial SWIR (staring InSb, PtSi, HgCdTe, InGaAs) camera specifications and optimization procedures are discussed. SWIR physics including blackbody distribution, atmospheric MODTRAN predictions, and selected material reflectance measurements are reviewed to illustrate basic guidelines to successful SWIR imaging. SWIR imaging examples of military applications, medical imaging, astronomy, long range observations, plume measurement, and art preservation are included to illustrate the unique properties of SWIR imaging.
AKELA has developed a software tool which uses a systems analytic approach to model the critical processes which support the acquisition of biological and chemical weapons by terrorist organizations. This tool has four major components. The first is a procedural expert system which describes the weapon acquisition process. It shows the relationship between the stages a group goes through to acquire and use a weapon, and the activities in each stage required to be successful. It applies to both state sponsored and small group acquisition. An important part of this expert system is an analysis of the acquisition process which is embodied in a list of observables of weapon acquisition activity. These observables are cues for intelligence collection The second component is a detailed glossary of technical terms which helps analysts with a non- technical background understand the potential relevance of collected information. The third component is a linking capability which shows where technical terms apply to the parts of the acquisition process. The final component is a simple, intuitive user interface which shows a picture of the entire process at a glance and lets the user move quickly to get more detailed information. This paper explains e each of these five model components.
Law enforcement agencies need to identify suspects as they travel around the world. Terrorists and others change all sorts of information about themselves but their faces remain the same. The first operational facial recognition system (face trace) was developed at the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the late eighties. It combines image analysis technology with collateral information to create an 'electronic mug book.' Using some simple collateral information about a suspect (height, age and sex) and a photograph, the system gives users the ability to identify an unknown person with a reasonable probability. The system matches information extracted from the photographs with similar information extracted from a database of photographs of existing suspects. The technology was subsequently transferred to the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) for use by the Border Patrol.
We describe a nuclear technique, the nitrogen camera, with which we have produced images of elemental nitrogen in concentrations and with surface densities typical of buried plastic anti-personnel mines. We have, under laboratory conditions, obtained images of nitrogen in amounts substantially less than in these small 200 g mines. We report our progress in creating the enabling technology to make the nitrogen camera a field deployable instrument: a mobile 70 MeV electron racetrack microtron and scintillator/semiconductor materials and the detectors based on them.
Magnetic sensors have been the sensor of choice in the detection and classification of buried mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO), both on land and underwater, Quantum Magnetics (QM), together with its research partner IBM, have developed a variety of advanced, very high sensitivity superconducting and room temperature magnetic sensors to meet military needs. This work has led to the development and utilization of a three-sensor gradiometer (TSG) patented by IBM, which cannot only detect, but also localize mines and ordnance. QM is also working with IBM and the U.S. Navy to develop an advanced superconducting gradiometer for buried underwater mine detection. The ability to both detect and classify buried non-metallic mines is virtually impossible with existing magnetic sensors. To solve this problem, Quantum Magnetics, building on work of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), is pioneering work in the development of quadrupole resonance (QR) methods which can be used to detect the explosive material directly. Based on recent laboratory work done at QM and previous work done in the U.S., Russia and the United Kingdom, we are confident that QR can be effectively applied to the non-metallic mine identification problem.
The use of residual (multiple stage) vector quantizer codevectors in a nearest neighbor classifier for direct classification of image pixel data is proposed. This approach combines the successive approximation process generated by the residual vector quantizer with sequential decision making. This approach potentially has the advantage of making large data base searches for small object or texture recognition in images both computation and memory efficient.
First established in the mid 1980s, the Technical Support Working Group (TSWG) is unique in its role as a provider of cutting edge technologies to the U.S. interagency antiterrorism/counterterrorism (AT/CT) community. The TSWG is a subworking group of the Interagency Working Group on Counterterrorism (IWG/CT) and, like the IWG/CT, falls under the ovesight of the Department of State's Coordinator for Counterterrorism. Restricting itself to rapid research, development and prototyping, TSWG provides technology customized to specific user requirements in as short a time as possible. The TSWG is organized into seven functionally aligned subgroups and includes representatives from more than 50 federal organizations. This broad agency membership promotes rapid identification of AT/CT requirements, establishes priorities and prevents unnecessary duplication. Multi-agency requirements receive priority for funding. TSWG also pursues cooperative R&D with several major allies, addressing joint international user requirements through the seven subgroups. DoD provides the bulk of program funding, as well as program management. DoS and DoE contribute additional monies.
This paper presents work in the development of a virtual reality system for situational training of small teams in high stress environments. Components of the system are discussed and two prototype training applications are presented.
Terrorism is no longer an issue without effect on the American mind. We now live with the same concerns and fears that have been commonplace in other developed and third world countries for a long time. Citizens of other countries have long lived with the specter of terrorism and now the U.S. needs to be concerned and prepared for terrorist activities.T he terrorist has the ability to cause great destructive effects by focusing their effort on unaware and unprepared civilian populations. Attacks can range from simple explosives to sophisticated nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. Intentional chemical releases of hazardous chemicals or chemical warfare agents pose a great threat because of their ready availability and/or ease of production, and their ability to cause widespread damage. As this battlefront changes from defined conflicts and enemies to unnamed terrorists, we must implement the proper analytical tools to provide a fast and efficient response. Each chemical uses in a terrorists weapon leaves behind a chemical signature that can be used to identify the materials involved and possibly lead investigators to the source and to those responsible. New tools to provide fast and accurate detection for battlefield chemical and biological agent attack are emerging. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) is one of these tools that has found increasing use by the military to respond to chemical agent attacks. As the technology becomes smaller and more portable, it can be used by law enforcement personnel to identify suspected terrorist releases and to help prepare the response; define contaminated areas for evacuation and safety concerns, identify the proper treatment of exposed or affected civilians, and suggest decontamination and cleanup procedures.
In order to achieve their goal of surreptitious operation within a country, terrorist organizations attempt to hide themselves from public view. In many instances such masking takes the form of simply appearing like the surrounding populace. In others, such as training facilities, standard military camouflaging techniques are used to conceal the group's equipment and activities. To effectively monitor and suppress activities of terrorist organizations, defeating the groups' attempt to hide is essential. Although finding individuals hiding within a society is extremely problematic, discovering camouflaged equipment, facilities, and personnel is readily accomplished by proper exploitation of hyperspectral imagery. Camouflage techniques attempt to make an object appear similar to its background, thereby making it difficult to find. Although making an object have similar color to its background is fairly easy, making it have the same spectral appearance is nearly impossible, unless the object is covered in the same material as the background. Even attempting to hide an object by covering it in background material will not work against a spectral imager since the act of moving the background material, e.g., foliage cuttings, changes the material's spectral characteristics. Hence, by collecting and properly exploiting spectral imagery, camouflaged objects can be readily differentiated from their background. This paper presents development of this technique, and of the MIDIS (multi-band identification and discrimination imaging spectroradiometer) instrument capable of real-time discrimination of camouflaged objects throughout a scene. Spectral matched-filtering of hyperspectral imagery also has the potential to find vehicles or structures which may be laden with explosives. Many explosives contain volatile materials, the release of which can be imaged by viewing appropriate spectral regions. Volatiles from the fuel oil in readily-produced ANFO are an example. If such volatiles were seen emanating from a vehicle or structure where they would not normally be expected, closer inspection would be warranted. Additionally, packing a vehicle with explosives often leaves trace residues on the outside of the vehicle. Spectral imaging and matched filtering can be used to identify these residues. Incorporation of spectral imaging surveillance equipment at probable terrorist targets could avert disasters such as the tragic bombing of the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City. Application of MIDIS technology to explosive identification is also detailed.
Recent advances in miniature photomultiplier tubes and low power electronics have made possible a new generation of small gamma-ray radiation detectors specifically designed for use by government and law enforcement agencies for the detection and interdiction of concealed nuclear materials. This paper describes an inexpensive pager sized radiation detector that can be worn on the belt or carried in a pocket for hands free operation, and which can quietly alert the operator to the presence of nuclear material. The sensitivity performance of the detector technology and the application of the instrument to law enforcement and nuclear smuggling are discussed.
Chemical and biological warfare materials create difficulties when designing or retrofitting high value targets such as buildings to withstand terrorist attack. The gas-phase corona reactor (GPCR) is a synergistic combination of plasma (or ionized gas) and catalyst technologies to produce an air purification system. The GPCR has demonstrated both chemical agent decomposition and biological material deactivation creating a universal air purification system. The benefits of GPCR include: (1) low temperature and atmospheric pressure operation; (2) small capital and operating costs; (3) minimal energy requirements; (4) NOx removal; (5) potential for low maintenance due to limited catalyst fouling; (6) straightforward operation with high, non-specific destruction efficiency; (7) treatment of bioaerosols and toxic chemicals; (8) compliance with federal and state indoor air regulations; (9) instant operation. The GPCR can be utilized for the protection of high value targets whether the attacks occur on the exterior or interior of a building. Overpressure operation of the building with the make-up air channeled through the GPCR can create a safe zone when the attack is external to the building. The damage and fatalities of a terrorist chemical and biological material dissemination within a building can be minimized with retrofitted GPCRs incorporated into the recirculation of the ventilation system.
In monitoring effluent water leaving its sites, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) assays for alpha-emitting radionuclides (uranium and the transuranics) to ensure compliance with regulatory limits. Because alpha emissions can only be detected over a short range in water (approximately 40 micrometers), the conventional approach is to collect samples for processing in a central laboratory; a time-consuming and costly procedure ensures to separate and measure the radionuclides. Because of the sporadic nature of sampling processes, there is the possibility that a release may go undetected. We are addressing this issue by developing a real-time, field-deployable instrument. This device incorporates a proprietary film that selectively binds radionuclides from dilute aqueous samples. By combining the film with an appropriate alpha spectrometer, we have developed a fieldable system that can operate as an autonomous monitor in a batch or continuous manner. Laboratory results to date have been encouraging. Positive identification of uranium and plutonium has been made by resolving the energy spectrum of emitted alphas. Sensitivity for uranium is at the 10 part per trillion level (15 femtocuries per liter).
High temperature superconductors provide enhanced sensitivity capabilities as chemical/biological agent detectors. State-of-the-art advances in ruggedizing superconducting platforms make them much more robust for field applications. In addition, microminiaturization and advances in refrigeration have enabled the systems engineering of portable, durable, survivable, low power requirement devices. This presentation describes a prototype system employing YBCO (yttrium barium copper oxide) superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDS) with specific biolayer detection dye coatings. These devices may be deployed as specific stand-off detectors, or potentially reconfigured as point sensors. A library of pattern recognition algorithms provides the reference template for the system. The human-system interface will provide a 'yes/no' agent confirmation for the environment being queried, and associated confidence value. This prototype detection system has great potential for deployment in support of hostage rescue/rapid response teams, DMAT, and urban search and rescue. The preparation and characterization of a new generation of optical sensors fabricated from high-temperature superconductor (HTSC) thin films is reported herein. These new hybrid devices are fashioned using HTSC thin films which are coated with organic dye overlayers. These systems are shown to respond selectively to those wavelengths which are absorbed strongly by the molecular dye. Methods for fabricating the superconductor element and depositing the dye layer are discussed. Moreover, resistivity versus temperature measurements before and after dye deposition are utilized to characterize these hybrid structures. The unique optical response properties of these hybrid sensors are also detailed.