16 September 1996 Digital watermarking of raw and compressed video
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Abstract
Embedding information into multimedia data is a topic that has gained increasing attention recently. For video broadcast applications, watermarking of video, and especially of already encoded video, is interesting. We present a scheme for robust interoperable watermarking of MPEG-2 encoded video. The watermark is embedded either into the uncoded video or into the MPEG-2 bitstream, and can be retrieved from the decoded video. The scheme working on encoded video is of much lower complexity than a complete decoding process followed by watermarking in the pixel domain and re-encoding. Although an existing MPEG-2 bitstream is partly altered, the scheme avoids drift problems. The scheme has been implemented and practical results show that a robust watermark can be embedded into MPEG encoded video which can be used to transmit arbitrary binary information at a data rate of several bytes/second.
© (1996) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Frank H. Hartung, Bernd Girod, "Digital watermarking of raw and compressed video", Proc. SPIE 2952, Digital Compression Technologies and Systems for Video Communications, (16 September 1996); doi: 10.1117/12.251278; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.251278
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