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18 August 1997 Near-infrared optical properties of ex-vivo human skin and subcutaneous tissues using reflectance and transmittance measurements
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The vast majority of 'non-invasive' measurements of human tissues using near infrared spectroscopy rely on passing light through the dermis and subdermis of the skin. Accurate knowledge of the optical properties of these tissues is essential to put into models of light transport and predict the effects of skin perfusion on measurements of deep tissue. Additionally, the skin could be a useful accessible organ for non-invasively determining the constituents of blood flowing through it. Samples of abdominal human skin (including subdermal tissue) were obtained from either post mortem examinations or plastic surgery. The samples were separated into a dermal layer (epidermis and dermis, 1.5 to 2 mm tick), and a sub-cutaneous layer comprised largely of fat. They were enclosed between two glass coverslips and placed in an integrating sphere to measure their reflectance and transmittance over a range of wavelengths from 600 to 1000 nm. The reflectance and transmittance values were converted into average absorption and reduced scattering coefficients by comparison with a Monte Carlo model of light transport. Improvements to the Monte Carlo model and measurement technique removed some previous uncertainties. The results show excellent separation of reduced scattering and absorption coefficient, with clear absorption peaks of hemoglobin, water and lipid. The effect of tissue storage upon measured optical properties was investigated.
© (1997) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Rebecca Simpson, Jan G. Laufer, Matthias Kohl-Bareis, Matthias Essenpreis, and Mark Cope "Near-infrared optical properties of ex-vivo human skin and subcutaneous tissues using reflectance and transmittance measurements", Proc. SPIE 2979, Optical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue: Theory, Instrumentation, Model, and Human Studies II, (18 August 1997);

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