23 January 1997 Novel sol-gel fabrication of integrated optical waveguides
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The sol-gel method is employed to implement a new, simple and highly versatile fabrication process for integrated optical waveguides on silicon. Photosensitive glass films of several microns thickness are dip-coated and optical components of various configurations through suitable masks are directly inscribed in them by ultraviolet light. Undefined regions are removed by soaking the films in an organic solvent for a few minutes. The developed ridges are then treated and planarized with a cladding layer. Altogether, the procedure is reproducible, and leads to waveguides with low propagation losses, on the order of 0.13 dB/cm.
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M. Amir Fardad, Mark P. Andrews, S. Iraj Najafi, "Novel sol-gel fabrication of integrated optical waveguides", Proc. SPIE 2997, Integrated Optics Devices: Potential for Commercialization, (23 January 1997); doi: 10.1117/12.264134; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.264134

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