4 April 1997 Recent advances and important issues in vertical-cavity lasers
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The rapid pace of advances in vertical-cavity surface- emitting lasers (VCSELs) has continued over the past couple of years. The widespread use of dielectric apertures formed primarily by lateral oxidation has provided much lower cavity losses, and this has enables a large decrease in device threshold as well as an increase in efficiency. The lowest optical losses have been obtained with thin or tapered oxide apertures. Within the past year, new strained- layer materials such as AlGaInAs have been incorporated to extend the benefits of strain to the 850 nm wavelength range. A record threshold of 290 (mu) A at 840 nm has been obtained. Devices have been designed for ultra-wide operating temperature ranges by using gain from different quantum levels at different temperatures. Submilliamp thresholds from 77 K to 373 K were demonstrated. The inclusion of low-loss dielectric apertures in wafer-bonded 1.55 micrometer InP/GaAs has yielded VCSELs with submilliamp thresholds for the first time. In addition, there has been considerable effort in making VCSEL arrays for parallel or free-space interconnect applications. Multiple wavelength arrays for even denser interconnects or wavelength addressing schemes have also been explored. In this paper we review some of this recent progress and point out issues still inhibiting further advances.
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Larry A. Coldren, Larry A. Coldren, Eric R. Hegblom, Eric R. Hegblom, Eva M. Strzelecka, Eva M. Strzelecka, Jack Ko, Jack Ko, Yuliya A. Akulova, Yuliya A. Akulova, Brian Thibeault, Brian Thibeault, } "Recent advances and important issues in vertical-cavity lasers", Proc. SPIE 3003, Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers, (4 April 1997); doi: 10.1117/12.271052; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.271052

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