4 April 1997 Thermal management of free space optical interconnects
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Abstract
Thermal simulation was carried out by finite element analysis. Both 2D and 3D modeling of the technology demonstrators, usually based on quarter models facilitated by the VCSEL modules symmetries, were carried out. The models were parameterized so that the effects of material properties, dimension VCSEL power dissipation could be easily simulated. Based on these models, detailed performance figures were projected for the VCSEL modules. Similarly the effects of non-uniform power dissipation were simulated. Using the parameterized models, the simulations can be used to rapidly assess the effects of changes in the VCSEL modules design and structure and to select optimum configuration for a given application. The heat conduction from the VCSEL to a heat sink is modeled through different package elements. They models are also used to study the different in thermal behavior between a wire-bonded and a flip-chip VCSEL, which consisted of an 8 X 8 array. The dimension of the VCSEL was varied from 8 micrometers to 20 micrometers and the characteristics of (Delta) T vs. VCSEL's power dissipation are developed for all the different models. The analysis indicated that the VCSEL active junction temperature is higher than the heat sink temperature. Optimized package design can be a critical element in enhancing reliability. Trade-off issues resulting form conflicting performance requirements are also discussed. The FEM analysis was also used to simulate the VCSEL configuration in order to understand the thermo-mechanical response of the VCSEL and the flip-chip interconnect during the bond processing.
© (1997) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Nickolaos E. Strifas, Aristos Christou, "Thermal management of free space optical interconnects", Proc. SPIE 3005, Optoelectronic Interconnects and Packaging IV, (4 April 1997); doi: 10.1117/12.271108; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.271108
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