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22 January 1997 Al-based thermal oxides in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers
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The microstructure of wet oxidized layers for vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELS) was studied by transmission electron microscopy. These oxides were formed by reaction of AlxGa1-xAs(x approximately equals 0 - 0.2) with water vapor at elevated temperatures (approximately 400 - 450 degrees Celsius). Due to the excellent carrier confinement provided by the oxidized layer, VCSELS have very low threshold currents and high efficiencies. This study revealed the accumulation of excess As at the interfaces with the oxidized layers and occasionally at the sample surface. To avoid this As accumulation on the sample surface, GaInP layers were grown on top of AlGaAs/GaAs layers. In this case no As was found at the layer surface. In addition, substantial shrinkage was found after oxidation, and the formation of large pores at the interface between the oxide and the high Al content layer, which might be detrimental for the device performance. The dependence of the oxide and interface quality on the composition of the oxidized layers, oxidation time and temperature are discussed in relation to the optical quality of VCSELs.
© (1997) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Zuzanna Liliental-Weber, S. Ruvimov, W. Swider, Jack Washburn, Meng Li, Gabriel S. Li, Constance J. Chang-Hasnain, and Eicke R. Weber "Al-based thermal oxides in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers", Proc. SPIE 3006, Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits, (22 January 1997);

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