11 April 1997 Silicon mirror arrays fabricated by using bulk and surface micromachining
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Abstract
Recently scanning actuator arrays have developed using metal, e.g. aluminium, or polysilicon as mirror material. Design and technology of micro mirror arrays mad of monocrystalline silicon are discussed in this paper as well as experimental results characterizing the arrays. Micro mirror arrays with up to 1000 simultaneously movable electrostatically operated cells convenient for continuous scanning with frequencies of several hundred Hz up to some kHz will be presented. The technological approaches consist of the use of silicon wet- and dry-etching, wafer bonding and metallization. A novel modified BESOI technology with CMP, wafer bonding with buried refractory metal electrodes and sacrificial layer etching has ben developed and will be discussed. The design process is based on simple analytical calculations of the mechanical behavior, the fluid flow surrounding the movable mirror and the electrostatic field as well as numerical simulations by means of the finite element method and network analysis. Furthermore, some experimental methods to characterize the electro-mechanical behavior of micro mirror arrays are discussed. In order to evaluate theoretical models describing the behavior, the natural frequencies, the damping coefficients and the frequency transfer function are measured. The adaptation of the model parameters leads to more accurate values simulating the behavior.
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Thomas Gessner, Thomas Gessner, Wolfram Doetzel, Wolfram Doetzel, Detlef Billep, Detlef Billep, Ramon Hahn, Ramon Hahn, Christian Kaufmann, Christian Kaufmann, Kersten Kehr, Kersten Kehr, Steffen Kurth, Steffen Kurth, Carmen Steiniger, Carmen Steiniger, Udo Wollmann, Udo Wollmann, } "Silicon mirror arrays fabricated by using bulk and surface micromachining", Proc. SPIE 3008, Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and Micromechanics II, (11 April 1997); doi: 10.1117/12.271427; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.271427
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