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24 January 1997 Watermarking of MPEG-2 encoded video without decoding and reencoding
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Embedding information into multimedia data, also called watermarking, is a topic that has gained increased attention recently. For practical applications like authentication and labeling in pay-per-view television broad-casting, watermarking of video, and especially of already encoded video, is interesting. We present a scheme for robust watermarking of MPEG-2 encoded video. The watermark is embedded into the MPEG-2 bitstream, and can be retrieved from the decoded video. The scheme is robust and of much lower complexity that a complete decoding process followed by watermarking in the pixel domain and re-encoding. Although an existing MPEG-2 bitstream is partly altered, the scheme avoids drift by adding a drift compensation signal. The scheme has been implemented and the results confirm that a roust watermark can be embedded into MPEG encoded video which can be used to securely transmit arbitrary binary information at a data rate of several bytes/second. The scheme is also applicable to other hybrid coding schemes like MPEG-1, H.261 and H.263.
© (1997) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Frank H. Hartung and Bernd Girod "Watermarking of MPEG-2 encoded video without decoding and reencoding", Proc. SPIE 3020, Multimedia Computing and Networking 1997, (24 January 1997);

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