By use of a simple model for the DQE of a CCD imaging array, the input/output imaging characteristics can be expressed in a manner which enables absolute comparisons to be made with any other image-acquisition technology. As an example a model comparison is made here between CCD-pixel-arrays and photographic-grain-arrays.In addition to DQE, it is demonstrated that other imaging parameters can be evaluated and compared in this way, including image noise, dynamic range, and output signal-to-noise ratio, and that these parameters can be related back to the respective detector mechanisms. Thus the roles played by the absolute pixel and grain dimensions and their quantum efficiencies can be identified and compared. Results of these comparisons confirm not only the obvious advantage of a multi-level mode of quantum-detection,but also present a basis for understanding the role of the CCD level-spacing function in order to fully exploit this advantage.
Rodney Shaw, Rodney Shaw,
"Model signal-to-noise comparison for CCD arrays versus film", Proc. SPIE 3032, Medical Imaging 1997: Physics of Medical Imaging, (2 May 1997); doi: 10.1117/12.273976; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.273976