23 May 1997 High-authority smart material integrated electric actuator
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For many current applications, hydraulic power is still the preferred method of gaining mechanical advantage. However, in many of these applications, this power comes with the penalties of high weight, size, cost, and maintenance due to the system's distributed nature and redundancy requirements. A high authority smart material Integrated Electric Actuator (IEA) is a modular, self-contained linear motion device that is capable of producing dynamic output strokes similar to those of hydraulic actuators yet at significantly reduced weight and volume. It provides system simplification and miniaturization. This actuator concept has many innovative features, including a TERFENOL-D-based pump, TERFENOL-D- based active valves, control algorithms, a displacement amplification unit and integrated, unitized packaging. The IEA needs only electrical power and a control command signal as inputs to provide high authority, high response rate actuation. This approach is directly compatible with distributed control strategies. Aircraft control, automotive brakes and fuel injection, and fluid power delivery are just some examples of the IEA's pervasive applications in aerospace, defense and commercial systems.
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G. Nicholas Weisensel, G. Nicholas Weisensel, Thomas D. Pierce, Thomas D. Pierce, Gary Zunkel, Gary Zunkel, } "High-authority smart material integrated electric actuator", Proc. SPIE 3044, Smart Structures and Materials 1997: Industrial and Commercial Applications of Smart Structures Technologies, (23 May 1997); doi: 10.1117/12.274682; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.274682

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