7 July 1997 Application of a general reaction/diffusion resist model to emerging materials with extension to nonactinic exposure
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Abstract
A general reaction/diffusion PEB model is applied to IBM APEX- E, Shipley UVIIHS, and an IBM experimental negative tone resist (ENR). Parameter extraction is carried out from development rate data (DRM) and specialized exposure experiments without the need for specialized equipment. APEX-E has the highest (Delta) CD/(Delta) TPEB (approximately 18 nm/degree Celsius) of the group. This is attributable to a nonlinear acid diffusion mechanism due to the PEB temperature which is low in relation to its glass transition temperature (Tg). UVIIHS achieves a (Delta) CD/(Delta) TPEB of approximately 10 nm/degree Celsius due to PEB processing close to the material's Tg, but varies as a function of feature type. ENR achieves a sensitivity of approximately 9 nm/C for the nearly full thickness of resist to remain. The general DUV model proved to apply to resists of very different mechanisms and processing conditions. Comparison of the energy density required for electron beam exposures shows a sensitivity an order of magnitude lower than with optical exposure for all resists and this is likely attributable to a different mechanism in the energy transfer to the photoacid generator.
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Marco Antonio Zuniga, Nicholas N. Rau, Andrew R. Neureuther, "Application of a general reaction/diffusion resist model to emerging materials with extension to nonactinic exposure", Proc. SPIE 3049, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XIV, (7 July 1997); doi: 10.1117/12.275828; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.275828
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