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7 July 1997 Non-chemically amplified 248-nm resist materials
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Abstract
Remarkable progress has been made in the formulation of chemically amplified resists for deep-UV (DUV or 248 nm) lithography. These materials are now in general use in full scale manufacturing. One of the deterrents to rapid and universal adoption of DUV lithography has been the combination of high cost of ownership and a narrow process latitude when compared to conventional i-line process alternatives. A significant part of the high cost of the DUV process is associated with installing and maintaining special air handling equipment that is required to remove basic contaminants from the ambient. Manufacture process latitude demands this special air handling. The chemically amplified resists were developed originally to support mercury lamp powered exposure systems. The sensitivity realized by chemical amplification is required to enable useful productivity with such systems that generate very little DUV flux at the wafer plane. With the advent of high powered excimer laser based illumination systems for 248 nm steppers and step-and-scan systems, it is appropriate to re-examine the applicability of non-chemically amplified DUV resist systems. These systems are less sensitive but have the potential to offer both lower cost of ownership and improved process latitude. A series of photoactive compounds (PACs) have been synthesized and auditioned for use in the formulation of a non-chemically amplified 248 nm resist. The most promising of these materials are analogs of 3-oxo-3-diazocoumarin. This chromophore displays photochemistry that is analogous to that of the diazonaphthoquinones (DNQ) that are the basis of i-line resist formulations, but it bleaches at 248 nm. Several structural analogs of the chromophore have been synthesized and a variety of ballast groups have been studied with the goal of enhancing the dissolution inhibition properties of the molecule. The diazocoumarin PACs have been formulated with customized phenolic resins that were designed to provide the combination of optical transparency, dry etch resistance and the dissolution characteristics that are required for manufacturing applications. The resins are copolymers of poly(4-hydroxystyrene) and blends of these polymers with novolac.
© (1997) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
C. Grant Willson, Wang Yueh, Michael J. Leeson, Thomas Steinhaeusler, Christopher L. McAdams, Ralph R. Dammel, James R. Sounik, M. Aslam, Richard Vicari, and Michael T. Sheehan "Non-chemically amplified 248-nm resist materials", Proc. SPIE 3049, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XIV, (7 July 1997); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.275821
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