15 July 1997 Achieving realistic performance and decison-making capabilities in computer-generated air forces
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For a computer-generated force (CGF) system to be useful in training environments, it must be able to operate at multiple skill levels, exhibit competency at assigned missions, and comply with current doctrine. Because of the rapid rate of change in distributed interactive simulation (DIS) and the expanding set of performance objectives for any computer- generated force, the system must also be modifiable at reasonable cost and incorporate mechanisms for learning. Therefore, CGF applications must have adaptable decision mechanisms and behaviors and perform automated incorporation of past reasoning and experience into its decision process. The CGF must also possess multiple skill levels for classes of entities, gracefully degrade its reasoning capability in response to system stress, possess an expandable modular knowledge structure, and perform adaptive mission planning. Furthermore, correctly performing individual entity behaviors is not sufficient. Issues related to complex inter-entity behavioral interactions, such as the need to maintain formation and share information, must also be considered. The CGF must also be able to acceptably respond to unforeseen circumstances and be able to make decisions in spite of uncertain information. Because of the need for increased complexity in the virtual battlespace, the CGF should exhibit complex, realistic behavior patterns within the battlespace. To achieve these necessary capabilities, an extensible software architecture, an expandable knowledge base, and an adaptable decision making mechanism are required. Our lab has addressed these issues in detail. The resulting DIS-compliant system is called the automated wingman (AW). The AW is based on fuzzy logic, the common object database (CODB) software architecture, and a hierarchical knowledge structure. We describe the techniques we used to enable us to make progress toward a CGF entity that satisfies the requirements presented above. We present our design and implementation of an adaptable decision making mechanism that uses multi-layered, fuzzy logic controlled situational analysis. Because our research indicates that fuzzy logic can perform poorly under certain circumstances, we combine fuzzy logic inferencing with adversarial game tree techniques for decision making in strategic and tactical engagements. We describe the approach we employed to achieve this fusion. We also describe the automated wingman's system architecture and knowledge base architecture.
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Sheila B. Banks, Sheila B. Banks, Martin R. Stytz, Martin R. Stytz, Eugene Santos, Eugene Santos, Vincent B. Zurita, Vincent B. Zurita, James L. Benslay, James L. Benslay, } "Achieving realistic performance and decison-making capabilities in computer-generated air forces", Proc. SPIE 3085, Modeling, Simulation, and Visualization of Sensory Response for Defense Applications, (15 July 1997); doi: 10.1117/12.280984; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.280984

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