11 July 1997 Application of multilayer coatings to replicated substrates
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We are engaged in a program to develop focusing hard x-ray telescopes in a double conical or Wolter 1 geometry that function up to 100 keV by employing small graze angles and multilayer coatings. Directly polished substrates are not an option because they are too thick to be nested efficiently. The only alternative is to fabricate the very thin substrates by replication. Our objective is the production of integral cylindrical substrates because they should result in better angular resolution than segmented foil geometries. In addition, integral cylinders would be more resistant to possible stress from deep multilayer coatings than segmented ones. Both electroforming of nickel (method of SAX, JET-X, and XMM) and epoxy replication are under consideration. Both processes can utilize the same types of mandrels and separation agents. While electroforming can produce substrates that are thin, the high density of the nickel may result in high weight optics for some missions. For convenience, experimentation with replication and coating is being carried out initially on flats. Our replication studies include trials with gold and carbon separation agents. This paper reports on our efforts with epoxy replicated optics.
© (1997) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Suzanne E. Romaine, Suzanne E. Romaine, Ahsen M. Hussain, Ahsen M. Hussain, John E. Everett, John E. Everett, Anna M. Clark, Anna M. Clark, Ricardo J. Bruni, Ricardo J. Bruni, Paul Gorenstein, Paul Gorenstein, Mauro Ghigo, Mauro Ghigo, Francesco Mazzoleni, Francesco Mazzoleni, Oberto Citterio, Oberto Citterio, Joseph Pedulla, Joseph Pedulla, } "Application of multilayer coatings to replicated substrates", Proc. SPIE 3113, Grazing Incidence and Multilayer X-Ray Optical Systems, (11 July 1997); doi: 10.1117/12.278854; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.278854

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