The scientific objectives, status, and future instrumental requirements of high energy X-ray astronomy (20 to 200 keV) are discussed. Two particularly compelling requirements are: (1) an improvement in sensitivity to a level of about 5 microCrab and (2) a survey of the sky at a sensitivity of about 0.1 milliCrab, which will discover and characterize about 10,000 new sources. The first requirement can be fulfilled by imaging telescopes that use large-area focusing X-ray mirrors, which are effective over 5-30 arcminute fields, and the second requirement can be met by arrays of large area coded mask imagers with wide fields, about 50 deg. Multilayer mirror and CdZnTe detector technology now in development offers the potential to meet these objectives. Position-sensitive CdZnTe detectors are well-suited to both of these imaging techniques, and instrument concepts that use these detectors are described. Detectors with pixel readout are better suited for focusing telescopes, and those with crossed-strip readout are better suited for coded mask imagers. Technical aspects of these detectors are discussed. Recent work at UCSD and WU on CdZnTe strip detectors is described in detail. Studies with small, 40 micron, X-ray beams have mapped a crossed-strip detector's spatial response with fine spatial resolution.