Currently, there are several techniques available for measuring microroughness. However, the results tend to be qualitative. Until recently, there was no metrology standard available to correlate the accuracy of various instruments at extremely low levels of surface texture. This paper describes a metrology standard that is useful for calibrating instruments for the levels of microroughness encountered in semiconductor, disk drive, and related industries today. In advanced applications, this level is about 5 angstroms rms in a 0.01 - 1.0 micrometer-1 spatial bandwidth range. This standard uses a one-dimensional square wave to reduce the effects of instrument spatial bandwidth. The standard has a 20 micrometer pitch with feature depths as small as 10 angstroms. The overall theoretical design guidance for this standard has been describe previously.