14 January 1998 Fragmentation process during Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy revealed by time-resolved imaging
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The stone fragmentation process induced during Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy was observed by time-resolved flash video imaging. Possible acoustic transient occurrence was simultaneously monitored with a PVDF needle hydrophone. We used artificial and cystine kidney stones. We observed that, although the fragmentation process is accompanied with the formation of a cavitation bubble, cavitation has a minimal incidence on stone fragmentation. Fragment ejection is mainly due to a direct laser stone heating and vaporization of stone organic constituents and interstitial water. The minimal effect of the cavitation bubble for fragmentation is confirmed by acoustic transients measurements, which reveal weak pressure transients. This is in contrast with the fragmentation mechanisms induced by laser of shorter pulse duration.
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Didier Beghuin, Didier Beghuin, Guy P. Delacretaz, Guy P. Delacretaz, Franz R. Schmidlin, Franz R. Schmidlin, Klaus Rink, Klaus Rink, } "Fragmentation process during Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy revealed by time-resolved imaging", Proc. SPIE 3195, Laser-Tissue Interaction, Tissue Optics, and Laser Welding III, (14 January 1998); doi: 10.1117/12.297905; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.297905

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