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26 September 1997 Stable grasp under external influences
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In object manipulation or material handling, the grasped object becomes unstable when external impacts exist. However, previous studies on grasping analysis seldom address such problems as the object is influenced by the external impacts. In this paper, we investigate the grasping stability and optimality issues under the influence of external disturbances. A rotation-displacement geometry model is used in analyzing the changes of equilibrium grasping forces under the disturbances. The changes of the grasping forces can be computed systematically through the invariant grasping configuration base constructed on this geometry model. Based on these results, we introduce the concept of perturbation closure, which plays a central role in our analysis. A method for finding the minimum finger grasping forces required for impact resist grasps is developed using the perturbation closure. A grasp so determined is guaranteed to be stable if the external impacts do not exceed the given threshold. A quantitative measurement is developed that can be used to evaluate the performance of different grasping configurations in resisting any kind of external impacts. Using this performance measurement, we can distinguish a good grasping configuration from a set of feasible grasping configurations of the given object. This actually gives a solution in finding the optimal grasping locations.
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MawKae Hor and Shiaw-Chian Wu "Stable grasp under external influences", Proc. SPIE 3208, Intelligent Robots and Computer Vision XVI: Algorithms, Techniques, Active Vision, and Materials Handling, (26 September 1997);

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