22 December 1997 Time-walk-compensated SPAD: multiple-photon versus single-photon operation
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The SPAD has proven already its capability of timing single- photon events with picosecond accuracy; it does that also for multi-photon events, but introduces here a time walk effect: with received energies of 1000 photons and more, the measured epoch time is shifted 200 ps or more towards earlier times; although the specific SPAD type used shows the lowest time walk effect of all measured silicon avalanche diodes, this effect still might introduce range errors of up to 30 mm, when measuring distances to satellites. It has been shown that this time walk effect is connected with a very small change of the avalanche rise time; this effect has been successfully used to develop an electronic circuit which measures this rise time difference, and uses it to compensate automatically almost all of the time walk effect. Some prototypes have been built and tested successfully in the satellite laser ranging station Graz; improved versions of the circuit are operated or tested now successfully in other SLR stations. It has been shown that the time walk effect can be reduced to more or less zero, for a dynamical range from single photon up to more than 1000 photons. For best time walk compensation, the circuit is adjusted for a specific laser pulse length; it has been shown however, that this adjustment also gives good time walk compensation for other laser pulse lengths.
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Georg Kirchner, Georg Kirchner, Franz Koidl, Franz Koidl, Josef Blazej, Josef Blazej, Karel Hamal, Karel Hamal, Ivan Prochazka, Ivan Prochazka, } "Time-walk-compensated SPAD: multiple-photon versus single-photon operation", Proc. SPIE 3218, Laser Radar Ranging and Atmospheric Lidar Techniques, (22 December 1997); doi: 10.1117/12.295659; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.295659


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