This paper reviews recent trends and evolutions in the low- end color printing market which is currently dominated by thermal inkjet (TIJ) based products. Micro electromechanical systems technology has been an enabler for the unprecedented cost/performance ratio of these printing products. The generic TIJ operating principles are based on an intimate blend of thermodynamics, fluid dynamics and LSI electronics. The key principles and design issues are outlined and the fabrication of TIJ printheads illustrated with an implementation by the Xerox Corporation.
"Micromachining technology for thermal ink-jet products", Proc. SPIE 3224, Micromachined Devices and Components III, (5 September 1997); doi: 10.1117/12.284514; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.284514