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12 February 1997 Marathon damage testing of pellicles for 193-nm lithography
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We investigate the effect of 193-nm radiation on commercially available pellicles for 248-nm lithography. Pellicles from two suppliers were irradiated at a realistic reticle plane fluence (0.1 mJ/cm2/pulse) for 50 million pulses. Analysis of transmission spectra revealed loss of pellicle material, decreased refractive index and increased absorption in various combinations depending on pellicle type and ambient. Although one of the two materials may be suitable for use at 193 nm, the other showed unacceptable degradation. We also quantified outgassing rates of organic species during irradiation, and observed greatly accelerated material loss in a pure nitrogen ambient compared with air. Yield rates of perfluorinated fragments and polymer product exhibited two-photon scaling behavior.
© (1997) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Andrew Grenville, Vladimir Liberman, Roderick R. Kunz, Mordechai Rothschild, Jan H. C. Sedlacek, and Ray S. Uttaro "Marathon damage testing of pellicles for 193-nm lithography", Proc. SPIE 3236, 17th Annual BACUS Symposium on Photomask Technology and Management, (12 February 1997);


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