14 November 1997 Bionanostructures built on e-beam-assisted functionalized polymer surfaces
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Electron-beam lithography employing poly(tert-Buthyl- Methacrylate)-co-(Methyl-Methacrylate) as radiation sensitive system was used to pattern bioactive molecules at super-high resolution. Positive and negative tone lithography succeed in printing fluorescent avidin into the range of 100 nm resolution. Two mechanisms were used for protein attachment, namely: (1) the linkage of the amino-end of the protein to the radiation-induced carboxylic acid sites, via NH2-to-COOH crosslinking mediated by carbodiimide; and (2) hydrophobic interaction between the patterned proteins and unexposed surfaces, in contrast to hydrophilic-repulsive interaction with exposed one. The first mechanism produces positive tone, half-tone images, while the second produces negative tone, sharp contrast images. On this basis, we assume that the first mechanism is concentration-controlled, while the second is an on-off one. This study proves that e-beam lithography materials and techniques can be easily transferred in bio- microlithography, with impact on biodevices fabrication and combinatorial chemistry.
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Dan V. Nicolau, Dan V. Nicolau, Takahisa Taguchi, Takahisa Taguchi, Mircea V. Dusa, Mircea V. Dusa, Susumu Yoshikawa, Susumu Yoshikawa, "Bionanostructures built on e-beam-assisted functionalized polymer surfaces", Proc. SPIE 3241, Smart Materials, Structures, and Integrated Systems, (14 November 1997); doi: 10.1117/12.293500; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.293500

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