3 June 1998 Photolithography at wavelengths below 200 nm
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Projection photolithography is widely expected to remain the main high-throughput patterning technology of microelectronic circuits in the next few years. As the critical dimensions of these devices shrink to 0.18 micrometers and below, the lithographic wavelength will decrease from 248 to 193 nm, and possible to 157 nm. This paper reviews the challenges posed by reducing the wavelength to below 200 nm, and the current state of the art in the critical areas of optical materials, photoresists, and high-resolution patterning.
© (1998) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Mordechai Rothschild, Mordechai Rothschild, } "Photolithography at wavelengths below 200 nm", Proc. SPIE 3274, Laser Applications in Microelectronic and Optoelectronic Manufacturing III, (3 June 1998); doi: 10.1117/12.309515; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.309515

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