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15 April 1998 Amplification of light in sol-gel-based Nd-glass waveguides
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Abstract
Integrated optic planar waveguides fabricated by sol-gel method by doping Neodymium (Nd3+) in glass were studied for gain properties. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a theoretical model based on atomic susceptibility (χas) is applied to the study of sol- gel based Nd-glass waveguide amplifier. Single pass amplification through these waveguides using this theory correlates well with the experimental results. As we see a strong dependence of χas in the observed gain coefficient, it is also possible to extend this theory to the case of inhomogeneously distributed Nd-atomic clusters in the gain medium. Studies on the absorption spectra of the samples showed a strong peak at λ equals 585 nm, which was used as the wavelength for pumping the waveguide. We note that a net gain of over 15 dB is achievable over a few cm's of the waveguide, assuming a homogeneous dispersion of the dopant ions in the medium. The precursors for the sol were TEOS (Tetraethyl orthosilicate) and TPOT (Titanium(IV) isopropoxide) in the ratio of 4:1 and Nd2O3 was used as the dopant. The concentration of the Nd3+ in the waveguide was 2.5 at. %. On a clean glass substrate, with typical dimensions of 2 cm x 1 cm, spincoated films comprising of multi-layers, produced a thickness of approximately 4 micrometers and a refractive index change of 0.0476 as revealed by the m-line measurements using the prism coupling technique. The samples supported two modes at λ=633 nm.
© (1998) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
S. R. Natarajan, Anand V. Ramamurthi, Ananth Selvarajan, M. Muthuraman, and K. C. Patil "Amplification of light in sol-gel-based Nd-glass waveguides", Proc. SPIE 3280, Rare-Earth-Doped Devices II, (15 April 1998); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.305397
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