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22 December 1997 Stress-induced channel waveguides in BaTiO3 epitaxial films
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We report stress-induced channel waveguides formed in epitaxial BaTiO3 films. BaTiO3 epitaxial films (doped with and without erbium) were grown on MgO (001) single- crystal substrates using rf magnetron sputtering. In the channel waveguides developed, the lateral confinement of light is achieved via the photoelastic effect in BaTiO3 induced by thin-film stress. As a stress-inducing film, a 0.5- micrometer-thick SiO2 film was sputter-deposited on top of a 3.0-micrometer-thick BaTiO3 film with a 7 to 10- micrometer-wide window opening. The fabricated structures were characterized in terms of their guided mode profiles at 1.3 and 1.55 micrometer wavelength. The measurement result clearly shows both the lateral and vertical confinement of light in the channel region. The stress distribution in the channel structure was calculated by solving the coupled equations that describe the elastomechanical and piezoelectric effects in the ferroelectric material. The refractive index changes were than calculated taking into account both the photoelastic and electro-optic effects of BaTiO3. The simulation results show a good agreement with the measurement results. The waveguide structure developed in this work does not require etching of BaTiO3, and is expected to be useful as a simple and economical method for forming channel waveguides with other ferroelectric films as well.
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Pedro Jose Barrios and Hong Koo Kim "Stress-induced channel waveguides in BaTiO3 epitaxial films", Proc. SPIE 3290, Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits II, (22 December 1997);

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