This paper discusses the approaches taken to deter fraud committed against four documents: the machine-readable passport; the machine-readable visa; the Consular Report of Birth Abroad; and the Border Crossing Card. General approaches are discussed first, with an emphasis on the reasons for the document, the conditions of its use and the information systems required for it to function. A cost model of counterfeit deterrence is introduced. Specific approaches to each of the four documents are then discussed, in light of the issuance circumstances and criteria, the intent of the issuing authority, the applicable international standards and the level of protection and fraud resistance appropriate for the document.
John W. Mercer, John W. Mercer,
"Document fraud deterrent strategies: four case studies", Proc. SPIE 3314, Optical Security and Counterfeit Deterrence Techniques II, (1 April 1998); doi: 10.1117/12.304707; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.304707