20 July 1998 Effect of grain size on actuator properties of piezoelectric ceramics
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Abstract
Properties of piezoelectric ceramics important for actuator applications have been measured as a function of grain size. Fine grain piezoelectrics (≤1 μm) have been found to exhibit improved machinability and increased mechanical strength over conventional materials. Actuators made from fine grain ceramic are, therefore, expected to have improved reliability, higher driving fields, and lower driving voltages (from thinner layers in stacked or co-fired actuators) over devices fabricated from conventional materials. TRS Ceramics in collaboration with the Pennsylvania State University's Materials Research Laboratory, has developed fine grain piezoelectric ceramics with minimal or no reduction in piezoactivity. New chemical doping strategies designed to compensate ferroelectric domain clamping effects from grain boundaries have been successful in yielding submicron grain sized ceramics with both low and high field properties equivalent to conventional materials. In the case of Type II ceramics, reduced grain size results in a very stable domain state with respect to both electric field and compressive prestress. Work is in progress to develop both epoxy bonded stack and co-fired actuators from fine grain piezoelectrics.
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Wesley S. Hackenberger, Wesley S. Hackenberger, Ming-Jen Pan, Ming-Jen Pan, Venkata Vedula, Venkata Vedula, Patrick Pertsch, Patrick Pertsch, Wenwu Cao, Wenwu Cao, Clive A. Randall, Clive A. Randall, Thomas R. Shrout, Thomas R. Shrout, } "Effect of grain size on actuator properties of piezoelectric ceramics", Proc. SPIE 3324, Smart Structures and Materials 1998: Smart Materials Technologies, (20 July 1998); doi: 10.1117/12.316878; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.316878
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