Advances in X-ray lithography technology are occurring at a promising rate. Impressive progress has been made in the development of high-intensity sources, mask membrane and patterning technology, precision mask-to-wafer alignment, and faster, high-resolution X-ray resists. The concept of using this inherently low defect lithographic technique for manufacturing submicron integrated circuits by 1985 and beyond, is realistic. Current X-ray Lithographic research systems replicate integrated circuit patterns on a full wafer with a single exposure, but step-and-repeat exposure systems are being developed for more advanced submicron applications. Both system types are discussed, and performance trade analyses are presented to show the relative merits of each approach.