21 July 1998 Rate-controlled sintering of nano-sized BaTiO3
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Abstract
Rate controlled sintering (RCS) was applied to nano-sized BaTiO3 powder compacts. The starting average particle size was measured to be 270 nm. Resulting microstructures were compared to those from constant heating rate sintering (TCS). Specimens were heat treated under a series TCS and RCS schedules until reaching 1350 degrees C. Grain sizes and porosities were compared using digital analyses of SEM microstructures. The more rapid TCS and RCS rates resulted in smaller average grain sizes and greater volume percentages of porosity. Specimens were also sintered under a constant RCS rate to successive degrees of densification. A dramatic increase in average grain size was observed between shrinkage of 18.7 percent, and 19.1 percent. This excessive grain growth was attributed to the final stages of RCS heat-treatment where specimens were exposed to elevated temperatures in the range of 1250-1350 degrees C. These immoderate temperatures resulted from the RCS control algorithm's response to the specimens having reached near or complete termination of densification where they could not follow a rapid setpoint densification rate.
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Katherine S. Meyers, Manu Srivastava, Robert F. Speyer, "Rate-controlled sintering of nano-sized BaTiO3", Proc. SPIE 3330, Smart Structures and Materials 1998: Sensory Phenomena and Measurement Instrumentation for Smart Structures and Materials, (21 July 1998); doi: 10.1117/12.316961; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.316961
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