A new software package TEMP has been developed to simulate resist heating effects in high throughput e-beam lithography for photomask manufacturing. The TEMP package is based entirely on numerical methods. It consists of three simulators; the energy deposition simulator by 3D Monte Carlo method, the thermal diffusion simulator by 3D finite difference method and the resist development simulator by 3D cell removal method. A new double-cell numerical scheme was developed to achieve high accuracy of temperature information for fine pattern structures without high demand on computer memory. The change of resist sensitivity due to heating was experimentally characterized by a heating stage constructed inside an e-beam lithography system. The resist layer was exposed while it was being heated at different temperature. The measured sensitivity variations due to heating were fitted into an empirical model and is employed in the resist development simulator, so that the 3D developed resist images with heating effects can be simulated.
"TEMP: a software package for simulation of resist heating in electron-beam lithography", Proc. SPIE 3331, Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, (5 June 1998); doi: 10.1117/12.309596; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.309596