29 June 1998 Influence of salting-out effect in ArF resist development
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Acrylic polymers are used for the ArF resists due to their high transparency. The development behaviors of the resists remarkably differ from that of conventional phenol resists. We investigated the influence of the ions in the developer and rinse to the development. The behaviors are explained clearly by considering the salting out effect. An exposed resist does not dissolve completely and forms gel by the salting out effect during the development, especially when the exposure is insufficient. This gel is dissolved by the rinse in which the salting out effect is very weak. The salting out effect also has influence to the unexposed resist. During the development, the diffusion of TMAH into the resist film occurs, while the swelling of the resist is inhibited by the salting out effect. The removal of the resist is observed occasionally during the rinse. A molecule of the ArF resists contains highly hydrophilic parts with the photogenerated carboxylic acid and hydrophobic parts. This type of molecule easily makes gel during the dissolution because the hydrophilic parts introduces the water and the hydrophobic parts make crosslinks of hydrophobic bonds. The hydrophobic bonds are influenced by the ions. This is because the acrylic resists are easy to be influenced by the salting out effect.
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Yasuhiro Yoshida, Yasuhiro Yoshida, Teruhiko Kumada, Teruhiko Kumada, Atsuko Sasahara, Atsuko Sasahara, Atsushi Oshida, Atsushi Oshida, Hiroshi Adachi, Hiroshi Adachi, } "Influence of salting-out effect in ArF resist development", Proc. SPIE 3333, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XV, (29 June 1998); doi: 10.1117/12.312464; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.312464

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