29 June 1998 Novolak resin analogs for resist applications
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Novolak resins, used to make typical g or i-line resists, are commonly made by condensing phenolic monomers with aldehydes. In the strictest definition of novolaks the aldehyde of choice is always formaldehyde. Under the acid catalyzed conditions generally used to make novolak the resins the carbocations formed by the protonation of the aldehydic carbonyl react with the phenolic reactant(s) to form the resins with elimination of water. Other aldehydes or low molecular weight ketones have been used on occasion to make useful analog for resist applications. Competing aldol condensations may interfere with isolation of pure polymeric resins especially in the case of ketones. Unique novolak resin analogs have been made by condensing `masked' bifunctional electrophiles with phenolic reactants under acidic conditions similar to standard novolak resin techniques. These resins were used as replacements for novolak resins and showed increased image contrast and thermal resistance. They were also used as photoactive compound backbones. Low molecular weight resins made with polyhydroxy aromatic phenolic monomers were especially useful as speed enhancing additives in thick film applications.
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Stan F. Wanat, Stan F. Wanat, Kathryn H. Jensen, Kathryn H. Jensen, Ping-Hung Lu, Ping-Hung Lu, Douglas S. McKenzie, Douglas S. McKenzie, } "Novolak resin analogs for resist applications", Proc. SPIE 3333, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XV, (29 June 1998); doi: 10.1117/12.312450; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.312450

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