26 June 1998 Calibration and validation of freehand 3D ultrasound systems based on DC magnetic tracking
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A new method for calibrating a free-hand 3D ultrasound system based on a DC magnetic tracking position sensor is presented. The method uses a linear affine transformation for registering the individual 2D US images in the position sensor's reference coordinate system. The affine transformation allows for automatic scaling of the digitized ultrasound image in physical dimensions. We have also introduced a spherical tissue-mimicking phantom to facilitate the calibration procedure. The system's calibration was validated in a clinical setting by determining its precision in localizing a single point and its accuracy in measuring distances and volumes. Precision in localizing a point was consistently below 1.9 mm (rms error). The bias in distance measurements was 0.06 mm and the standard deviation was 0.75 mm. The accuracy of measuring volumes for a one-pass can was below 1% whereas for multiple pass scans it was below 4%. Furthermore, the performance of the DC magnetic tracking system was tested separately from the ultrasound scanner. We conclude that the ultrasound scanner rather than the position sensor is the limiting factor in the geometric accuracy of the 3D US system.
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Niko Pagoulatos, Niko Pagoulatos, Warren S. Edwards, Warren S. Edwards, David R. Haynor, David R. Haynor, Yongmin Kim, Yongmin Kim, } "Calibration and validation of freehand 3D ultrasound systems based on DC magnetic tracking", Proc. SPIE 3335, Medical Imaging 1998: Image Display, (26 June 1998); doi: 10.1117/12.312541; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.312541

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