At temperatures below 20K conventional MOS transistors continue to work, but excessive noise and current-voltage anomalies such as kink effect and hysteresis appear on their output characteristics because of carrier freeze-out in silicon. A cryogenic MOS transistor was proposed to prevent the anomalies. The paper describes the cryogenic transistor structure, its performance and the result of its application in a 64 by 1 CMOS multiplexer.
Nikolai E. Bock,
Evgeny I. Cherepov,
"Cryogenic MOST for focal plane readout electronics", Proc. SPIE 3360, Infrared Readout Electronics IV, (14 September 1998); doi: 10.1117/12.321757; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.321757