6 August 1998 Real-time chemical detection using species-selective thin films and waveguide Zeeman interferometry
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We present a chemical sensor scheme based on selective sensing surfaces and highly sensitive integrated optical transduction methods. Using self-assembly techniques, species selective thin-films are covalently attached to the surface of Si3N4 channel waveguides to produce robust sensor elements. Exposure to targeted analytes results in the selective absorption of these molecules onto the waveguide surface causing a change in the effective refractive index of the guided modes. These relative changes in effective refractive index between TE and TM modes are precisely measured using Zeeman interferometry. Our measurements demonstrate reversible, real time sensing of volatile organic compounds at ppm levels.
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Karen M. Grace, Karen M. Grace, Karl C. Shrouf, Karl C. Shrouf, Seppo Honkanen, Seppo Honkanen, Pekka Ayras, Pekka Ayras, Pekka Katila, Pekka Katila, Matti J. Leppihalme, Matti J. Leppihalme, Roger G. Johnston, Roger G. Johnston, Xiaoguang Yang, Xiaoguang Yang, Basil I. Swanson, Basil I. Swanson, Nasser Peyghambarian, Nasser Peyghambarian, "Real-time chemical detection using species-selective thin films and waveguide Zeeman interferometry", Proc. SPIE 3383, Electro-Optical Technology for Remote Chemical Detection and Identification III, (6 August 1998); doi: 10.1117/12.317646; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.317646

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