4 September 1998 Canine detection odor signatures for mine-related explosives
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Abstract
Dogs are capable of detecting and discriminating a number of compounds constituting a complex odor. However, they use only a few of these to recognize a substance. The focus of this research is to determine the compounds dogs learn to use in recognizing explosives used in land mines. This is accomplished by training dogs under behavioral laboratory conditions to respond differentially on separate levers to (1) blank air, (2) a target odor such as an explosive, and (3) all other odors (non-target odors). Vapor samples are generated by a serial dilution vapor generator whose operation and output is characterized by GC/MS. Once dogs learn this three-lever discrimination, testing sessions are conducted containing a number of probe trials in which vapor from constituent compounds is presented. Which lever the dogs respond to on these probe trials indicates whether they can smell the compound at all (blank lever) or whether it smells like the target odor (e.g., the explosive) or like something else. This method was conducted using TNT and C-4. The data show the dogs' reactions to each of the constituent compounds tested for each explosive. Analysis of these data reveal the canine detection odor signature for these explosives.
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James M. Johnston, James M. Johnston, Marc Williams, Marc Williams, L. Paul Waggoner, L. Paul Waggoner, Cindy C. Edge, Cindy C. Edge, Regina E. Dugan, Regina E. Dugan, Susan F. Hallowell, Susan F. Hallowell, } "Canine detection odor signatures for mine-related explosives", Proc. SPIE 3392, Detection and Remediation Technologies for Mines and Minelike Targets III, (4 September 1998); doi: 10.1117/12.324221; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.324221
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