The primary goal of Command and Control (C2) reference modeling is to facilitate interoperability between Armed Force systems by proposing a framework model to define the interfaces between interacting C2 entities. Applying C2 reference models should help to define the information and intelligence exchange needs at each Canadian Forces' command level, thus facilitating external interoperability within coalition deployments. Two candidate C2 reference models were compared: the U.S. Command and Control Reference Model (C2RM) and the UK Methods for Command, Control, Communication and Intelligence Interoperability Reference Model (MCI RM). The C2RM is used to specify information needs and data flows from the individual soldier up to the operational and strategic command levels and is aimed primarily at long-term force interoperability. The MCI RM is used to develop a high-level object-oriented model of the system/command in question. High- level information flow requirements are precisely what is needed to develop operating procedures for short lead-time coalition deployments. Thus, a C2 entity's UK MCI RM representation is more suited to the fulfillment of short-term interoperability goals typical of coalition force deployments when compared to the U.S. C2RM's representation. The UK MCI RM corresponds better to Canadian Forces' coalition force interoperability needs.